Abstract of Dissertation

Agency : Social Benefits, Urban Slums, Slum living conditions

Objective : To study the extent of access to services, entitlements and benefits between a) families of Members of Women’s groups of the Programme Slum; b) Families of Non-group members of the programme slum and c) families of the non-programme slum and to understand the factors contributing to these differential situations.

Background : Urban Health Resource Centre (UHRC) is a nongovernment organization which works towards the health and nutrition concerns, socio-economic empowerment, improving quality of life by improving physical environment, wellbeing and building empowered social organizations among disadvantaged urban populations living in underserved slum settlements in cities like Agra and Indore (India) with special focus on women and children of the slums. During the year 2012- 13 UHRC had strengthened its approaches towards addressing broader well-being challenges of slums and informal settlements that the organization team had been observing and learning off during the past 2-3 years. In light with the observations and lessons over the past few years, UHRC aligned its activities of its Programs towards addressing broader community needs i.e. focusing on multi-dimensional, overall social development, including issues that affect health and well-being more broadly and focusing more on sustaining community organisations and further strengthening of federations by facilitating their linkage with civic authorities through motivation and training. Need for Research: This study was done for understanding and evaluating the programme areas based on the conditions of the programme slum and with families of the non-programme slums. But later it was realized that one also needs to understand about the various factors which are contributing to any differential access to services and various entitlements. Hence, with the continuation of the summer training project sample sized increased to get an overview of the conditions of larger slum population with the factors contributing to those situations.

Methodology : This cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 slums in Agra city in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India across three sample domains a) Members of UHRC mentored women’s groups; b) Non-members residing in the programme slum; c) Residents of Nonprogramme slum. Considering the time and resources available, 7 slums (5 programme and 2 Non- programme slums) are purposively selected for the study after consulting the UHRC field supervisors and social facilitators. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. The research methods used for data collection were survey schedules and focused group discussions. Total sample size of 350 women was interviewed out of which a final sample size of 310 was selected.

Findings : Results revealed number of urban inequities among the programme and non-programme slum on indicators like Slum living conditions, education, access to health and access to social benefit and entitlements. The non-programme slum families’ condition when analyzed was worse than the families of programme slum. 30 • Only 55% houses in non-programme slum are semi-pucca or kuccha against 35% houses in the programme slum are Semi-Pucca or Kaccha. • 70% households in the programme slum have their own individual toilets while the same percent of households in non-programme slum used to practice open defecation. • Among the group members (15% out of 130 households) and non-group members (13% out of 114 households) used to buy reverse osmosis 20 liters water bottles for drinking from the market of the programme slum but the families of the non-programme slum use to drink the hand pump water. • The children under 2 years of age who were checked in the families, almost are fully immunized in Programme slum while 50% are fully immunized in non-programme slum. • Three fourth of the families in programme slum prefer to go to private hospitals and doctors while 90% of the families of non programme slum goes to private facility. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is huge difference between the condition of Programme and non-programme slum when measured on different indicators.