Student Dissertation

Agency : Child Immunization, Immunization Coverage, Determinants and Barriers

Objective : To assess the immunization coverage of child of age between 12 months to 24 months in slum and non slum of urban area of Surendranagar district. • To identify determinants and barriers for immunization of child of age between 12 months to 24 months in urban area of Surendranagar district. To assess level knowledge of mothers about child immunization.

Background :

Methodology : Type of study- Cross sectional household survey conducted Study Area- Three cities of Surendranagar district in Gujarat. Sampling Procedure Cluster sampling method was used; total 13 clusters were selected by simple random method from three cities. 15 respondents per cluster in Surendranagar (5 cluster), 10 respondents per cluster in wadhwaan(4 cluster) and 8/9 respondents per cluster in Dhrangdhra (4 cluster) were selected. Sample size-150 mother were interviewed who had child of age between 12 months to 24 months

Findings : Total 150 mothers were interviewed in slum and non-slums of urban area of Surendranagar district. Out of 150 children 97 children (64.7%) received complete immunization. while 5.3 percent were not immunised with single vaccine and remaining 30 percent children were partially immunised Immunization coverage was lesser in slums (57%) than that of non slums (70%) Dropout rate from BCG to DPT3 vaccine was 20.78, and from BCG to measles was 19.6 percent. Major reasons identified for partially immunised and un-immunised children are parents preoccupied with work (30%), fear about post vaccination complication or child had post immunization complication (43%), Lack of knowledge (26%) restriction from family members (20.3) , mothers not getting properly informed by ASHA /FHW(15%). Other factors are like children of mothers with poor knowledge about immunization less likely got complete immunization, two –third children who were born at institution received complete immunization, while 61 percent of total children born at home were not received complete immunization. 82 percent out of all first children were received complete immunization.

Recommendations : Coverage of immunization was satisfactory in comparison with state average of immunization coverage. But still it is far away from achieving universal immunization. Children whose mother are having poor knowledge about immunization were less likely to get complete immunization. Mother Education has positive relation with immunization Children who were delivered in institution were more likely to complete all vaccination. Birth order was negative in association with complete immunization of child.

Child Immunization is most important public health intervention. Vaccination has reduced the burden of infectious disease. Immunization is most cost effective measure in order control and reduces child morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease. In 1985 government of India started Universal Immunization Programme to control six major vaccine preventable disease namely are Tuberculosis, Polio, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus and Measles, As per NFHS 3 s only 43.5 percent of children were fully immunized, so for poor coverage there are many factors playing major role in it, such as socio-cultural, demographical, economical, services provider related factors, geographical factors, knowledge, attitude of parents towards immunization.