Abstract of Dissertation

Keyword : Infections Management; ICU; Healthcare Associated

Objective : • To assess the awareness of Infection Control Practices followed at Sarvodaya Hospital, Faridabad. • To search for areas of problem and find reasons for the same.

Background : Health care-associated infection (HCAI), also referred to as "nosocomial" or "hospital" infection, is an infection occurring in a patient during the process of care in a hospital or other health care facility which was not present or incubating at the time of admission. HCAI can affect patients in any type of setting where they receive care and can also appear after discharge (more than 48 hours). The four most common types of Nosocomial Infections were urinary tract infections, surgical site infection, ventilator associated pneumonia and blood stream infections. Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) have a higher risk of acquiring Health care associated infections (HAIs) as compared to those in non-critical care areas. ICU-acquired infection rate was five to ten times higher than hospital-acquired infection rates in general ward patients. Besides the committees and other leaders in infection control, much of infection control lies in the hands of the personnel in direct contact with the sick patient. These healthcare employees must understand specific guidelines in prevention of infection transmission through isolation and other good healthcare habits. Much of this information was disseminated through training and educational programs given by the infection control departments.

Methodology : • Type of study: Descriptive • Study area - All ICUs at Sarvodaya Hospital, Faridabad • Data - Primary • Study population: Doctors, Nurses in ICUs at Sarvodaya Hospital, Faridabad • Sample size – 95(all the doctors and nurses were covered.) • Duration of Study – 3 months (12 weeks) • Type of Data - Quantitative • Tool – Questionnaire • Technique – Questionnaire was personally distributed to everybody and requested them to fill it in front of the researcher. • Data entry- Excel sheet

Findings : Nurses in the Intensive Care Unit were well aware of the Nosocomial Infection existing in hospitals and the policy and surveillance regarding it, but some fail to remember the surveillance system followed at Sarvodaya Hospital. All the nurses have received a formal training in Hand Hygiene but very few of them were able to recall the steps during Hand washing. Many of the nurses were able to recall the ideal time for hand washing. Nurses feel challenging in providing care to the nosocomial infection patient as there was fear of getting infection as mentioned by the nurses that they were not regularly screened for infections and this adds to their worry. Another challenge according to the nurses was understaffing and lack of more isolation rooms in the Intensive Care Units. There was no battery backup for syringe pumps, lack of availability of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). One of the major challenges they face was of attendants i.e. sometimes there was no fixed timing for attendant. Physicians at Intensive Care unit at Sarvodaya were aware of the Nosocomial Infection existing in hospitals and the policy and surveillance regarding it and maintain Standard protocols for encountering any kind of situation. Standard protocols of wearing gloves, head cap, apron, and mask were followed. The Physicians were highly conscious regarding the hand hygiene practices and they were aware that wearing of gloves does not eliminates the hand washing practices.

Recommendations : The study revealed that current physical facilities available for infection control were good and meets the NABH standard level. The study also provides baseline infections of Healthcare Associated Infections & associated risk factors for future surveillance. If the measures followed were continuously updated and upgraded the infection level can be further reduced. This can be done by giving training awareness Training Programme on Standard Requirements, guidance on implementation of infection control programmes. The awareness about infection control should also be developed among visitors. The awareness about the infection must be created that will help in decrease of infections and control of the same.