Abstract of Dissertation

Keyword : Vaccination Timeliness; Children Aged 12 to 24 months; Universal Immunization Programme

Objective : To assess the timeliness of three doses of Pentavalent and oral polio vaccine, one dose of BCG, Hepatitis-B and measles vaccine in Porbandar district, Gujarat. To assess the relationship between parity and the timeliness of the vaccines

Background : Immunization is a cost-effective intervention & plays an important role in reducing mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases in children. Untimely vaccination unnecessarily prolongs susceptibility to disease and contributes to the “burden of childhood morbidity and mortality. Although vaccination coverage rates among children are used as a basic indicator of vaccination program performance. The aim of this study is to characterize the timeliness of childhood vaccination administered under the routine immunization program.

Methodology : Study setting: District Porbandar is located in Gujarat with a population of 585,449 (2011 census). The population density of the district is 253 per sq.km. Design and Sample size: Study design was cross-sectional. The total sample size of 210 children was included using two=stage cluster sampling. Study period: 5th February 2018 to 5th May 2018. Study Participants: Children aged 12 to 24 months. Inclusion Criteria: Children aged between 12-24 months were taken into consideration. The children of families who were migrated into district having Mamta/Immunization card were taken into study. The household having more than 1 eligible beneficiary (age between 12-24 months& having Mamta/ immunization card) were also taken into consideration for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Children who were younger than 12 months and older than 24 months were not taken into study. Also, the children who don’t have Mamta/ Immunization card and those who emigrated were not taken into consideration. The study was done on the delay before time vaccination was not the focus. Data Collection Methods: Data was collected through Mamta/ Immunization card. Data Analysis: The analysis was done using excel and proportions of delayed immunization were computed.”

Findings : Though the immunization coverage of the district is high there are delays in vaccination, though the delay is not so high there is a scope for improving timeliness in the vaccination in district Porbandar, Gujarat. The “study included vaccination data on 210 children who were 12 to 24 months of age of Porbandar district, Gujarat and the timely administration of BCG, Hepatitis, OPV-0, Penta-1, Penta-2, Penta-3, Polio-1, Polio-2, Polio-3 and Measles was found to be occurred in 86.6%, 59.1%, 73.3%, 71.4%, 67.2%, 61.0%, 71.9%, 67.2%, 60.0% and 74.8% of children respectively. It shows that as the parity increases the delay in the administration of vaccine decreases i.e. timeliness increases.

Recommendations : Lack of timely administration of key childhood vaccines remains a major challenge in Porbandar and likely contributes to the significant burden of VPD.s Though the delay is not so high in Porbandar district, but a significant proportion of the population lacks age-appropriate vaccination in the district.

Research Question: Are the children aged 12 to 24 months received three doses of Pentavalent and oral polio vaccine, one dose of BCG, Hepatitis-B and measles vaccine on time as scheduled in Porbandar district, Gujarat? Is there any association between parity and timeliness of the vaccine?